Softcover, 268 pp.
Na Makou ka Mana asserts that the founders of the Hawaiian Kingdom exercised their own agency and were not just acted upon by foreign powers. The ruling alibi selectively appropriated tools and ideas from the West - - including laws, religion, education models, protocols, weapons, printing and map-making technologies, seafaring vessels, clothing, names, and international alliances. The result? A hybrid system based on an enduing tradition of Hawaiian governance and intended to preserve, strengthen, and maintain the lahui. Using rare primary documents and "oiwi optics," Kamanamaikalani Beamer offers a new point of reference for understanding the motivations, methods, and accomplishments of Hawai'i's great leaders.